What is Biofilm?

A layer of microorganisms that adhere to a surface with self-produced slime is called a biofilm. Other names for this mucus layer are glycocalyx or extracellular matrix (ECM). 10% of this slime layer is bacteria and 90% is the biomass of a biofilm. A surface covered with a biofilm, which contains a lot of water, is therefore slippery and gelatinous. This allows other bacteria to adhere and create biofilm themselves. These biofilms occur not only in nature but also in humans. Consider, for example, plaque. The properties of bacteria living in a biofilm can be completely different from those of free-living microorganisms. Also, the bacteria living in a biofilm are much more resistant to toxic substances such as detergents, disinfectants and antibiotics. The higher resistance of biofilm cells to toxic agents is caused by the activation stress tolerance mechanisms. The induction of a resistant biofilm phenotype also contributes to this.